Section 52(1) of Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Protection Act provides that a person who has been removed from Canada cannot return to Canada unless the person first receives specific authorization from immigration authorities.  This authorization is known as “authorization to return to Canada” (an “ARC“).  Whether an ARC is needed will depend on what type of removal order the person received.

Types of Removal Orders

There are three types of removal orders in Canada.  These are the “Departure Order,” the “Exclusion Order,” and the “Deportation Order”.

A Departure Order requires that a person leave Canada within 30 days after the order becomes enforceable.  Failure to do so causes the Departure Order to become a Deportation Order.

An Exclusion Order provides that the removed person cannot return to Canada for one year unless the person obtains ARC. For Exclusion Orders resulting from misrepresentation the bar is five years.

A Deportation Order results in a person being permanently barred from returning to Canada. Such a person may not return unless he/she receives ARC.

Authorizations to Return to Canada

An ARC is not routinely granted. Individuals applying for an ARC must demonstrate that there are compelling reasons to consider an ARC when weighed against the circumstances that necessitated the issuance of the removal order. Applicants must also show that they post minimal risk to Canadians and to Canadian society.

The factors that an immigration officer should consider include:

  • The severity of the immigration violation that led to the removal.
  • The applicant’s history of cooperation with Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (“IRCC“).  Pursuant to the Federal Court decision in Singh v. Canada (Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship), the filing of multiple applications to remain in Canada, such as humanitarian & compassionate requests as well as pre-removal risk assessments, should not be seen as a negative in terms of a history of co-operation with IRCC, nor should it be seen as having imposed an unreasonable cost of Canada.
  • Whether there any previous immigration warrants.
  • Whether the applicant complied with the terms and conditions of the document issued by IRCC.
  • Whether the applicant paid for the removal costs.
  • Whether compelling or exceptional circumstances exist.
  • Whether there alternative options available to the applicant that would not necessitate returning to Canada.
  • Whether there are factors that make the applicant’s presence in Canada compelling (e.g., family ties, job qualifications, economic contribution, temporary attendance at an event).
  • Whether there are children directly implicated in the application whose best interests should be considered.
  • Whether the applicant supports him or herself financially.
  • How long the applicant intends to remain in Canada.
  • Whether there are benefits that Canada may derive.