Regulation 203(3)(a) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations (the “IRPR“) states:
(3) An assessment provided by the Department of Employment and Social Development with respect to the matters referred to in paragraph (1)(b) shall, unless the employment of the foreign national is unlikely to have a positive or neutral effect on the labour market in Canada as a result of the application of subsection (1.01), be based on the following factors:
(a) whether the employment of the foreign national will or is likely to result in direct job creation or job retention for Canadian citizens or permanent residents;
The Temporary Foreign Worker Manual states that the following principles should guide the assessment of whether the employment of a foreign national will or is likely to result in direct job creation or job retention for Canadian citizens or permanent residents.
First, an officer conducting an analyis of a Labour Market Impact Assessment (an “LMIA”) application should reflect a reasonable and balanced approach ensuring that officers od not base their decision solely on the outcome of one of the seven labour market factors. An employer can receive a positive LMIA even if this factor is assessed to be negative and an employer can receive a negative LMIA even if this factor is assessed to be positive.
Second, for Owner Operator LMIAs, assessing if the entry of a foreign national will result in the creation or retention of employment opportunities for Canadians and permanent residents holds more weight in determining the impact on the labour market.
Third, the following questions will help guide the assessment of this factor:
- How will the staffing of this position lead to direct job creation or retention?
- How many jobs will be created / retained?
Regulation 215 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations states that:
215 (1) A foreign national may apply for a study permit after entering Canada if they
(a) hold a study permit;
(b) apply within the period beginning 90 days before the expiry of their authorization to engage in studies in Canada under subsection 30(2) of the Act, or paragraph 188(1)(a) of these Regulations, and ending 90 days after that expiry;
(c) hold a work permit;
(d) are subject to an unenforceable removal order;
(e) hold a temporary resident permit issued under subsection 24(1) of the Act that is valid for at least six months;
(f) are a temporary resident who
(i) is studying at the preschool, primary or secondary level,
(ii) is a visiting or exchange student who is studying at a designated learning institution, or
(iii) has completed a course or program of study that is a prerequisite to their enrolling at a designated learning institution; or
(g) are in a situation described in section 207.
Regulation 215(f)(iii) has been the subject of judicial scrutinity.
The Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada Guidelines state:
Prerequisite course or program of study in Canada before the main program of study
As of June 1, 2014, visitors in Canada who have completed a course or program of study that was previously identified as a prerequisite for their admission into a program of study at a DLI may also apply for a study permit from within Canada [R215(1)(f)(iii)] if they provide both
- a letter of acceptance received from a DLI before or after the completion of the prerequisite course that confirms the course is a prerequisite for admission to the main program
- proof of successful completion of the prerequisite course,
Canada’s Department of Employment and Social Development Canada (“ESDC“) administers the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (the “TFWP“). This is the program through which employers can obtain Labour Market Impact Assessments (“LMIAs“).
The following is a partial reproduction of the TFWP Manual (an internal document) regarding who the employer is for the purpose of administering the TFWP.
Who is the Employer
ESDC policy states that an employer is an entity (e.g. person, business, corporation or organization) that makes an offer of employment to one or more foreign nationals who provide labour in return for compensation for a specified period of time. The employer is generally the entity that hires, controls working condititions and remunerates the foreign national.
For the purpose of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program, charachteristics of the relationship, such as control and remuneration, including statutory benefits (e.g. CPP and EI) will be reviewed to determine when an employer – employee relationship exists. The total relationship will be examined and assessed, bearing in mind that no one factor is determinative and there is an extensive list of factors that may be examined.
In cases where two or more entities are determined to share employer responsibilities by the Department, a group of employers may make an offer of employment to a foreign national. The roles and responsibilities of each party must be clear and defined at the time of application.
For the purpose of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program, in cases where a self-employed individual wishes to enter Canada to establish or purchase a business and be involved in its day-to-day operations, the business plan or contract to purchases shares in a business should be evaluated as the job offer. Ownership of shares does not guarantee that a foreign national would qualify as an owner-operator.Read more ›
People who immigrate to Canada are typically aware that if they are convicted of certain criminal offences that they could lose their permanent resident status. When immigrants are charged with criminal offences, immigration lawyers and criminal defense counsel will accordingly often work together to do their best to ensure that those charged do not lead to deportations. It is therefore important to note that the Canada Border Services Agency has recently taken an exceptionally strict approach to interpreting Canadian immigration legislation which could fundamentally change the immigration consequences of violent actions in Canada. The issue is now before the Federal Court of Canada.
The Consequences of Criminal Records
Canadian immigration legislation provides that a permanent resident is inadmissible to Canada on grounds of serious criminality if they have been convicted in Canada of an offence under an Act of Parliament punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of at least ten years, or of an offence under an Act of Parliament for which a term of imprisonment of more than six months has been imposed.
The first thing to note about the above is that a conviction is required. A conviction is a finding by a Canadian court that a person is guilty of an offence. A charge or a confession is not a conviction. A conviction that is set aside on appeal is also not a conviction for immigration purposes, nor is an absolute or conditional discharge, which is where a finding of guilt is made, but no conviction against the individual is registered.
The second thing to note about the above is that only convictions for certain offences will result in a permanent resident being inadmissible to Canada. The offence must either be one whose maximum penalty is a term of imprisonment of ten years or more,Read more ›
François Crépeau is a Professor at the McGill Faculty of Law and the Director of the Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism. He was the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants from 2011 to 2017.
Peter Edelmann and François discuss migration issues generally, the Compact for Migration, and its implication for Canadian immigration and refugee law.
This episode was recorded before Peter Edelmann was appointed to the British Columbia Supreme Court.
4:15 – What does a UN special rapporteur on migration do?
8:00 – What impacts could climate change have on the future of global migration patterns?
10:37 – How does Canadian refugee law address the issue of climate refugees?
21:00 – What led up to the Compact on Global Migration and what preceded it? How has migration historically been monitored / governed on a global scale?
28:00 – What is the international definition of a refugee?
31:3– What percentage of migrants would qualify as refugees?
33:30 – What is the Global Compact on Migration?
Peter, Deanna and Steven discuss where Canada’s political parties stand on immigration.
1:45 – Where do the parties stand with regards to letting provinces decide who immigrates?
13:28 – Immigration levels
23:30 – What are the promises with regards to border security and the Safe Third Country Agreement?
36:00 – Temporary Foreign Workers
42:00 – Application feesFees
46:00 – Settlement services and values tests
48:00 – Where parties can work together on and general trends.Read more ›
Last updated on January 2nd, 2020
In December 2018 I wrote an article for The Canadian Immigrant about a Supreme Court of Canada case that had just been heard which could have a significant impact on Canadian immigration law. The case, Minister of Citizenship and Immigration v. Alexander Vavilov, was about whether a child who was born in Canada to Russian spies is a Canadian citizen. The Supreme Court of Canada before hearing the case announced that it was considering changing the law on how a legal principle called the “standard of review” works in Canadian administrative law.
On December 19, 2019 the Supreme Court of Canada released its decision. The Supreme Court created a revised framework for the standard of review in judicial review applications. Vavilov has significant implications for how Canada’s Federal Court will review the decisions of immigration officials.
Understanding The Standard of Review
As I wrote in December, the standard of review pertains to how courts review administrative tribunal decisions. In the immigration context, administrative tribunals include visa officers, border officials and Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada members. The Federal Court has the jurisdiction to review all decisions of these tribunals, including visa refusals, stays of removal, deportation orders, etc.
The concept of the standard of review is perhaps best illustrated by using the analogy of a parent asking her child to pick the clothes that she will wear to school that day. A parent who is showing her child a lot of deference will let her child wear whatever she wants to wear to school, as long as what the child picks is reasonable. If the child tries to wear pants over her head, for example, the parent would say that the child’s choice is unreasonable and prohibit the outfit.Read more ›
Please note that none of the information on this website should be construed as being legal advice. As well, you should not rely on any of the information contained in this website when determining whether and how to apply to a given program. Canadian immigration law is constantly changing, and the information above may be dated. If you have a question about the contents of this blog, or any question about Canadian immigration law, please contact the Author.
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