Last updated on June 23rd, 2020
Section 38 of Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Protection Act provides that a foreign national is inadmissible on health grounds if their condition is (a) likely to be a danger to the public, (b) is likely to be a danger to public safety, or (c) might reasonably be expected to cause excessive demand on health or social services. The excessive demand inadmissibility provisions are designed, in part, to reduce the impacts of immigration on Canada’s publicly funded health and social services systems.
People who have a medical condition should not immediately assume, however, that they will be inadmissible to Canada. First, certain types of immigrants are exempted from excessive demand inadmissibility. Second, in 2018, the Government of Canada increased the threshold for excessive demand and also excluded certain types of health and social services from rendering someone inadmissible. Third, those with medical conditions may not be inadmissible if they can show that they will not be a burden on Canada’s publicly funded health and social services systems. Fourth, the data suggests that the immigration applications of many applicants who are initially declared medically inadmissible are approved.
Immigrants Exempted from Excessive Demand Inadmissibility
Excessive demand inadmissibility does not apply to the spouse, common-law partner or child of a Canadian citizen or permanent resident who is sponsoring them to immigrate.
It also does not apply to refugees and protected persons.
The 2018 Changes
On June 1, 2018 the Liberal Government of Canada enacted a Temporary Public Policy Regarding Excessive Demand on Health and Social Services (the “Public Policy“)
In order to understand the changes it is necessary to understand some key terms.
Section 1 of Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations (the “Regulations“) defines excessive demand as:
(a) a demand on health services or social services for which the anticipated costs would likely exceed average Canadian per capita health services and social services costs over a period of five consecutive years immediately following an individual’s most recent medical exam,Read more ›
Section 109 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act provides that the Refugee Protection Division (the “RPD“) may vacate a decision to allow a claim for refugee protection if it determines that the decision was obtained through misrepresentation. Specifically, it states:
Vacation of refugee protection
109 (1) The Refugee Protection Division may, on application by the Minister, vacate a decision to allow a claim for refugee protection, if it finds that the decision was obtained as a result of directly or indirectly misrepresenting or withholding material facts relating to a relevant matter.
Rejection of application
(2) The Refugee Protection Division may reject the application if it is satisfied that other sufficient evidence was considered at the time of the first determination to justify refugee protection.
Allowance of application
(3) If the application is allowed, the claim of the person is deemed to be rejected and the decision that led to the conferral of refugee protection is nullified.
The approach to an application to vacate a decision granting refugee status involves two steps:
First, the RPD must find that the decision granting refugee protection was obtained as a result of a direct or indirect misrepresentation, or a withholding of material facts relating to a relevant matter; and
Second, the RPD should consider whether there remains sufficient evidence that was considered at the time of the positive determination to justify refugee protection and, if so, the RPD may reject the application to vacate, notwithstanding the misrepresentation
The Immigration and Refugee Board’s statistics on vacation hearings can be found here.
Withdrawn & Other
2020 (January to March)
Pursuant to Justice Russell’s decision in Bafakih v.Read more ›
Canada is currently in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic. Its borders are closed to discretionary travel. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada has suspended the processing of most temporary residence applications. The Canada Border Services Agency has put a pause on removing people from Canada. Civil servants are largely working from home. The Royal Bank of Canada is forecasting that 170,000 fewer people will become immigrants than what was planned pre-COVID-19.
At the same time, many provinces have begun reopening their economies. The Orders in Council closing the Canada – US border and Canada’s airports to international travel are supposed to expire on June 21 and June 30 respectively, although they may be extended.
The question that many are asking is what comes next for Canada’s immigration system.
While the processing of most temporary residence applications has been suspended during COVID-19 the ability of foreign nationals to submit them has continued. The implication is obvious. When COVID-19 ends there will be a massive backlog of applications. Significant processing delays should be expected.
The systemic delays will not be limited to the ability of visa officers to process applications. The collection of biometrics at Service Canada and most Visa Application Centers has been suspended since mid-March. When these centers re-open applicants will need to schedule appointments. Unless capacity is expanded each day that they remain closed is a day that will need to be added to how long it will take to schedule an appointment in the future.
Prior to COVID-19 the deadline to give biometrics after being instructed to do so was 30 days. At the start of COVID-19 this was extended to 90 days. New biometric instruction letters do not have a deadline. It would not be surprising if applicants in the future will be told that they have six months to provide biometrics until the backlog is clear.Read more ›
While the assessment of the bona fides of a marriage has long been a requirement in Canada’s family reunification programs, it has traditionally not been a significant factor in temporary residence applications. This has recently changed, especially for those submitting applications to Canadian visa posts in India, and at the start of 2020 there were numerous Federal Court of Canada decisions involving refusals of open spousal work permit applications because of concerns over the genuineness of marriages. Many applicants were also barred from entering Canada for five years due to misrepresentation.
As discussed below, the increase in misrepresentation findings in open spousal work permit applications has been a deliberate Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (“IRCC”) policy choice. Canadian visa officials are explicitly trying to “send a message” to communities in India where they believe that marriages of convenience are increasingly occurring. Federal Court jurisprudence on the procedural fairness required in such cases is still developing, and it remains to be seen whether the courts are going to impose greater procedural fairness requirements than what is generally expected in temporary residence applications.
In order to understand the e-mails and internal public policies obtained through Access to Information Act requests below, it is important to understand that there are two types of open-spousal work permits. The first is for the spouses or common-law partners of skilled workers, which fall under Labour Market Impact Assessment (“LMIA”) exemption classification C-41. The second is for spouses or common-law partners of full-time international students in Canada, or LMIA exemption classification C-42. Other acronyms to be aware of include R4, which is the Canadian immigration regulation that prohibits marriages of convenience (or MOCs) from Canadian immigration programs, and A40, which is the Canadian immigration legislative provision which bans people who have committed misrepresentation from immigrating to Canada for five years.Read more ›
Regulation 205(b) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations provides that a work permit may be issued under section 200 to a foreign national who intends to perform work that would create or maintain reciprocal employment of Canadian citizens or permanent residents of Canada in other countries.
The Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada Guidelines (the “Guidelines”) state that visiting professors may be issued work permits pursuant to R205(b).
To be eligible, an applicant must:
- be applying for a work permit of not more than two academic years;
- to take a position with a post-secondary institution; and
- retain their position abroad.
Visiting professors may also include those on sabbatical who are doing collaborative research with a Canadian post-secondary institution.
The term “retain their position abroad” means that the professor must maintaing their employment abroad as a professor.
Work permits for visiting professors are authorized for a maximum period of two academic years.
Visiting professors are not eligible to extend their work permits under this category, and their employers must apply for a Labour Market Impact Assessment to extend their stay.
Read more ›
Whether an individual is remorseful is a factor in assessing humanitarian & compassionate considerations.
In Pu v Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2018 FC 600 Justice Diner held that:
With respect to remorse, the IAD concluded that the Applicant’s remorse was not genuine principally because (a) she had continued to misrepresent her position in 2009, and (b) at the IAD hearing she had attempted to deflect responsibility for her earlier actions. The IAD acknowledged the Applicant’s expressions of remorse at the appeal, but found that she had had since 2009 to take responsibility for her actions, and that the Applicant was ultimately remorseful only for having been caught at the hearing — several years after her initial interview with CBSA, during which she again misrepresented the circumstances of the marriage.
Although the Applicant disagrees that she deflected responsibility at the IAD appeal, I am of the view that the IAD’s findings were reasonably open to it based on the evidence before it. I also note that the IAD’s reasoning is consistent with other areas of law where late-stage accountability can weigh significantly against a party who seeks discretionary relief.
To conclude on this issue, I will cite from the IAD’s comments in Lin v Canada (Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness), 2017 CanLII 26505 (CA IRB), which are on point for this case:
Remorse is defined as deep regret or guilt for a wrong committed, and a feeling of being sorry for doing something bad or wrong in the past. There are two components to remorse in the context of a misrepresentation: one involves the actions preceding the IAD appeal; and the other is the expression of remorse in testimony at the appeal itself.Read more ›
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada is increasing processing fees.
- Starting in 2020-21, permanent resident processing fees for Economic class applicants increase as follows:
- Fees for principal applicants of the Economic business class (including self-employed, start-up visa, Quebec investor, Quebec entrepreneur, and Quebec self-employed) will increase from $1,050 to $1,575 (an increase of 50%).
- Fees for principal applicants of the Economic non-business class will go from $550 to $825 (an increase of 50%). Note: this increase will not apply to fees for principal applicants and their families in the Caregivers programs, which will remain unchanged.
- Fees for spouses or common-law partners of all Economic classes will go from $550 to $825 (an increase of 50%).
- Fees for dependent children of all Economic classes will go from $150 to $225 (an increase of 50%).
- The right of permanent resident fee will increase from $490 to $500 (an increase of 2%).
- Starting in 2022-2023, on the day of the two-year anniversary of the coming into force of these Regulations and every two years thereafter, selected permanent resident processing fees will be increased every two years by the applicable Consumer Price Index (CPI) increase, rounded to the nearest $5. The approximation assumption being that the CPI is 2% per year on average, but the fees would nevertheless be subject to inflation calculated cumulatively from the time of coming into force. The following prospective fee increases below are provided for illustrative purposes only:
- Permanent resident processing fees for all economic business class principal applicants (including self-employed, start-up visa, Quebec investor, Quebec entrepreneur, and Quebec self-employed) will be increased to approximately $1,640 (projected) in 2022-2023, to $1,705 in 2024-2025, and so on.
- Permanent resident processing fees for most economic non-business class principal applicants (including federal skilled workers,
A quick post today as there is alot going on due to the corona virus, but Justice Annis just released an interesting decision in Pryce v. Canada where he certified the following question:
In the context of a request for humanitarian and compassionate considerations under subsection 25 (1) of IRPA, must an officer consider evidence of past hardship of unconscionable mistreatment of an applicant and her children, not recurring or arising on removal, and not cited as a factor in the Guidelines, but that may accord with the principles in Chirwa v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) (1970), 4 I.A.C. 338 adopted in Kanthasamy v Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) 2015 SCC 61, even if the issue has not been explicitly raised by the applicant as a relevant factor for consideration? If not, may the applications judge raise the question as a new issue in accordance with the principles of R. v Mian, 2014 SCC 54?Read more ›
Last updated on April 1st, 2020
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Canadian government has implemented several measures that impact immigration programs and the ability to enter Canada. Current measures under the Non-US OIC and the Quarantine OIC will be effective until June 30, 2020, while current measures under the US OIC will be effective until April 21, 2020, and current measures under the Interim Order are effective until further notice.
Please note that the Canadian government is expected to amend its policies as needed in the coming weeks and months and as such we ask that you contact us for advice before relying on the information provided in this memo.
- PERSONS ALLOWED INTO CANADA
Before determining whether you fall into one of the categories below, please note that any persons exhibiting COVID-19 symptoms (e.g. fever and cough, or fever and breathing difficulties) will not be allowed to board an aircraft to fly into Canada, regardless of your status in Canada. This blanket prohibition affects Canadian citizens and permanent residents. You will, however, be allowed to enter Canada through the Canada–US land border, though you will be subject to the 14-day self-isolation requirement outlined in the Quarantine OIC.
Please note that, even if you fall into one of the exemptions below, foreign nationals seeking to enter Canada must still apply for a Temporary Resident Visa (if you are travelling to Canada as a citizen of a visa-requiring country) or an eTA (if you are flying to Canada as a citizen of a visa-exempt country).
Read more ›
Peter, Deanna and Steven discuss where Canada’s political parties stand on immigration.
1:45 – Where do the parties stand with regards to letting provinces decide who immigrates?
13:28 – Immigration levels
23:30 – What are the promises with regards to border security and the Safe Third Country Agreement?
36:00 – Temporary Foreign Workers
42:00 – Application feesFees
46:00 – Settlement services and values tests
48:00 – Where parties can work together on and general trends.Read more ›
Please note that none of the information on this website should be construed as being legal advice. As well, you should not rely on any of the information contained in this website when determining whether and how to apply to a given program. Canadian immigration law is constantly changing, and the information above may be dated. If you have a question about the contents of this blog, or any question about Canadian immigration law, please contact the Author.
- Business and Entrepreneur Immigrantion
- Citizenship Applications and Revocations
- Family Class (Spousal Sponsorships, Parents & Grandparents)
- Humanitarian and Compassionate
- Immigration and Refugee Board
- Immigration Consultants
- Immigration Trends
- Judicial Reviews
- Labour Market Impact Assessments
- Maintaining Permanent Residency
- Provincial Nominee Programs
- Skilled Immigration (Express Entry, CEC, FSWC, Etc.)
- Study Permits
- Tax and Trusts
- Temporary Resident Visas
- Work Permits